Banner
JSP Page
JSP Page

PINEAPPLE(Ananas comosus ; Bromeliaceae)

Common Names: Pineapple, Ananas, Nanas, Pina

Related Spices: Pina de Playon (Ananas bracteatus)

Distant affinity: Pingwing (Aechmea magdalenae), Pinguin (Bromelia pinguin), Pinuela (Karatas plumier)

Description


The pineapple plant is a herbaceous perennial, 2-1/2 to 5 ft. high with a spread of 3 to 4 ft. It is essentially a short, stout stem with a rosette of waxy, straplike leaves.


Foliage
The long-pointed leaves are 20 - 72 in. in length, usually needle tipped and generally bearing sharp, upcurved spines on the margins. They may be all green or variously striped with red, yellow or ivory down the middle or near the margins. As the stem continues to grow, it acquires at its apex a compact tuft of stiff, short leaves called the crown or top. Occasionally a plant may bear 2 or more heads instead of the normal one.


Flowers
At blooming time, the stem elongates and enlarges near the apex and puts forth an inflorescence of small purple or red flowers. The flowers are pollinated by humming-birds, and these flowers usually develop small, hard seeds. Seeds are generally not found in commercially grown pineapple.

Fruit
The oval to cylindrical-shaped, compound fruit develops from many small fruits fused together. It is both juicy and fleshy with the stem serving as the fibrous core. The tough, waxy rind may be dark green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. The flesh ranges from nearly white to yellow. In size the fruits are up to 12 in. long and weigh 1 to 10 pounds or more.

The pineapple is technically not a single fruit, but a sorosis. It is a medium tall (1?1.5 m) herbaceous perennial plant with 30 or more trough-shaped and pointed leaves 30?100 cm long, surrounding a thick stem.The pineapple is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, spirally-arranged flowers along the axis each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit.

Pineapple plants are herbaceous perennials that can reach 5 feet tall and 4 feet wide. The pineapple fruit grows on a stalk in the center of the rosette of leaves.Pineapple leaves are waxy, strap-shaped leaves 2 to 6 feet in length. They usually have a sharp point on the tip of the leaf and spines along the margins of the leaves. The leaves may be green or variegated in color.

Pineapple is one of the popular fruits and is liked by majority of the people irrespective of their age group

Pineapple products include pineapple slices, juice concentrates and pulps. In order to increase the shelf life and to make pineapple juice and slices available even during off-season, canning is the most popular method. Canned pineapple slices and juice are consumed as dessert, in fruit salads, while making cakes and pastries etc.

Commercial pineapple plants are only harvested two to three years, because the fruit begins to get smaller with each year of plant life.
Pineapples weigh between four and nine pounds on average but can reach weights up to twenty pounds.
The waste parts left from canning plants, including the skin, core and ends, are used to make alcohol, vinegar and food for livestock.

Varieties
The most popular commercial pineapple variety in India is Giant Kew. Other important verities are Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte, Rothchild, Jaldhup, Desi, Lakhat, etc. Qualitatively, Queen is the outstanding table variety .